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On 4 September 1945, the soldiers were picked up by a Norwegian seal hunting vessel and surrendered to its captain. Archived from the original on Retrieved "Svalbard hit by major earthquake". "11 Sjø og luft transport, sikkerhet, redning og beredskap". In summer, particularly away from land, clarification needed fog is common, with visibility under 1 kilometre (0.6 mi) registered 20 of the time in July and 1 of the time in January, at Hopen and Bjørnøya. People without a source of income can be rejected by the governor. Pyramiden: portrett av ein forlaten utopi (in Norwegian).

There is a separate budget for Svalbard to ensure compliance. Citation needed Politics edit Main article: Politics of Svalbard See also: Visa policy of Svalbard The Svalbard Treaty of 1920 established full Norwegian sovereignty over the archipelago. Archived from the original (PDF) on Retrieved "6 Administrasjon". Archived from the original (PDF) on Retrieved Machan, Teresa. Retrieved ead link a b c "7 Industrial, mining and commercial activities". Retrieved 2 December 2015. They are also advised to carry a firearm for use as a last resort.

59 60 Grumant was closed after it was depleted in 1962. Retrieved Umbriet (1997 6367 "Direkteruter" (in Norwegian). Pyramiden features similar facilities; both are built in typical post-World War II Soviet architectural and planning style and contain the world's two most northerly Lenin statues and other socialist realism artwork. In 2007, there were 484 people working in the mining sector, 211 people working in the tourism sector and 111 people working in the education sector. "Climate Svalbard Lufthavn (Year 2016) Climate data (10080. Store Norske Spitsbergen Kulkompani, a subsidiary of the Norwegian Ministry of Trade and Industry, operates Svea Nord in Sveagruva and Mine 7 in Longyearbyen. Education edit See also: Academic grading in Svalbard Longyearbyen School serves ages 618.

62 Ny-Ålesund is a permanent settlement based entirely around research. Lufttransport provides regular corporate charter services from Longyearbyen to Ny-Ålesund Airport and Svea Airport for Kings Bay and Store Norske; these flights are in general not available to the public. 81 Non-EU and non-Nordic Svalbard residents do not need Schengen visas, but are prohibited from reaching Svalbard from mainland Norway without such. Archived from the original on 3 November 2006. 82 No person is required to have a visa or residence permit for Svalbard. There are three football pitches, but no stadiums because of the low population. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia.

Many scientists and tourists observed. There was also the same number of days with rain falling as snow falling, when there are normally more than twice as many snow days. 165 species of plants have been found on the archipelago. External links edit Coordinates : 78N 16E / 78N 16E / 78; 16 (Svalbard). Since 2002, Svalbard's main settlement, Longyearbyen, has had an elected local government, somewhat similar to mainland municipalities. 68 Other public offices with presence on Svalbard are the Norwegian Directorate of Mining, the Norwegian Polar Institute, the Norwegian Tax Administration and the Church of Norway. 7 All settlements are located on Spitsbergen, except the meteorological outposts on Bjørnøya and Hopen. The treaty grants permission for any nation to conduct research on Svalbard, resulting in the Polish Polar Station and the Chinese Arctic Yellow River Station, plus Russian facilities in Barentsburg. Article by Andrew. Braathens safe 50 år: Mot alle odds.

Archived from the original on "Finnair grounded: Norway refuses to allow direct flights between Helsinki and Svalbard, citing 1978 agreement icepeople". Increased interest in petroleum exploration in the Arctic raised interest in a resolution of the dispute. 86 Economy edit Main article: Economy of Svalbard The three main industries on Svalbard are coal mining, tourism, and research. The treaty limits Norway's right to collect taxes to that of financing services on Svalbard. Transport from Longyearbyen to Barentsburg (45 km or 28 mi) and Pyramiden (100 km or 62 mi) is possible by snowmobile in winter, or by ship all year round. 37 Discussions to establish the sovereignty of the archipelago commenced in the 1910s, 38 but were interrupted by World War.


Archived from the original on b c d e f "Protected Areas in Svalbard" (in Norwegian). Approximately 60 of the archipelago is covered with glaciers, and the islands feature many mountains and fjords. Svalbard is a breeding ground for many seabirds, and also features polar bears, reindeer, the Arctic fox, and certain marine mammals. Norwegian county, but forms an unincorporated area administered by a governor appointed by the Norwegian government. Retrieved "Entry and residence".

Spitsbergen: Cold Beauty (in English, German, Dutch, and Norwegian). 83 84 Russia retains a consulate in Barentsburg. 68 In 2011, a 20-year plan to develop offshore oil and gas resources around Svalbard was announced. Scandinavian Airlines has daily scheduled services to Tromsø and Oslo. The longest fjord is Wijdefjorden (108 km or 67 mi followed by Isfjorden (107 km or 66 mi Van Mijenfjorden (83 km or 52 mi Woodfjorden (64 km or 40 mi) and Wahlenbergfjorden (46 km or 29 mi). No roads connect the settlements; instead snowmobiles, aircraft and boats serve inter-community transport. Archived from the original on Retrieved b c d e f "9 Næringsvirksomhet". Particularly Bjørnøya, Storfjorden, Nordvest-Spitsbergen and Hopen are important breeding ground for seabirds. 96 Transport edit Main article: Transport in Svalbard Snowmobiles are an important mode of transport in Svalbard, such as here at Longyearbyen. 116 Remains of Predator X from the Jurassic period have been found; it is the largest dinosaur-era marine reptile ever founda pliosaur estimated to have been almost 15 m (49 ft) long.

52 The mine at Ny-Ålesund had several fatal accidents, killing 71 people while it was in operation from 1945 to 1954 and from 1960 to 1963. Norwegian Air Shuttle (inflight magazine). 34 The first mining was along Isfjorden by Norwegians in 1899; by 1904, British interests had established themselves in Adventfjorden and started the first all-year operations. Svalbard is a demilitarized zone, as the treaty prohibits the establishment of military installations. 250 Archived t the Wayback Machine. 25 26 17th18th centuries edit The whaling station of the Amsterdam chamber of the Northern Company in Smeerenburg, by Cornelis de Man (1639 but based on a painting of a Dansk hvalfangststation (Danish whaling station).B.R.

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"Regulations concerning rejection and expulsion from Svalbard" in force. 118 Vegetation is most abundant in Nordenskiöld Land, around Isfjorden and where affected by guano. The coldest temperature of the year was as high as 18 C (0 F warmer than the mean minimum in a normal January, February or March. 58 During the Cold War, the Soviet Union retained about two-thirds of the population on the islands (with a third being Norwegians) with the archipelago's population slightly under 4,000. 62 The village features facilities such as a school, library, sports center, community center, swimming pool, farm and greenhouse. Traffic is strongly concentrated between March and August; overnights have quintupled from 1991 to 2008, when there were 93,000 guest-nights. 97 Svalbard Airport, Longyear, located 3 kilometres (2 mi) from Longyearbyen, is the only airport offering air transport off the archipelago.

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Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Permanent dead link Photo book. After the war, the Soviet Union proposed common Norwegian and Soviet administration and military defence of Svalbard. It lost radio contact in May 1945, and the soldiers were capable of asking for support only in August 1945. Within Longyearbyen, Barentsburg, and Ny-Ålesund, there are road systems, but they do not connect with each other. With the increasing size of the larger ships, up to 2000 people can potentially appear in a community that normally numbers less than. 40 The treaty took effect on, at the same time as the Svalbard Act regulated the archipelago and the first governor, Johannes Gerckens Bassøe, took office.

Archived from the original on Retrieved "Polar bear kills British boy in Arctic". 127 See also edit References edit "Archived copy". Bradt Travel Guides, 2005. 23 24 Because of the lawless nature of the area, English, Danish, Dutch, and French companies and authorities tried to use force to keep out other countries' fleets. Norwegian residents retain pension and medical rights through their mainland municipalities. Archived from the original on Torkildsen (1984 2526 Arlov (1996 46 Arlov (1996 26 Torkildsen (1984 26 Torkildsen (1984. Tarandus platyrhynchus ) is a distinct sub-species; although it was previously almost extinct, it can be legally hunted (as can Arctic fox ). Svalbard ( /svlbr/ ; 3, norwegian pronunciation: s lb ; prior to 1925 known by its. Archived from the original on Retrieved "Lov om gjennomføring i norsk rett av hoveddelen i avtale om Det europeiske økonomiske samarbeidsområde (EØS).v. "Why and how Svalbard got the fibre" (PDF).

75, Kjerstin Askholt has been governor; she is assisted by a staff of 26 professionals. Archived from the original on 1 September 2010. Archived from the original on 20 November 2010. 60 Settlements edit Longyearbyen is the largest settlement on the archipelago, the seat of the governor and the only town to be incorporated. 103 Climate edit Main article: Climate of Svalbard The climate of Svalbard is dominated by its high latitude, with the average summer temperature at 4 to 6 C (39 to 43 F) and January averages at 16 to 12 C (3 to 10 F).

Barentsz did not recognize that he had discovered an archipelago, and consequently the name Spitsbergen long remained in use both for the main island and for the archipelago as a whole. 13 Svalbard is part of the High Arctic Large Igneous Province, 14 and experienced Norway's strongest earthquake on, which hit a magnitude.5. 106 108 The growing season is very short, and may last only a few weeks. Permanent dead link Tjomsland, Audun Wilsberg, Kjell (1995). Retrieved "Svalbard definition of Svalbard in English Oxford Dictionaries". The most common are little auk, northern fulmar, thick-billed murre and black-legged kittiwake. At first the outposts were merely summer camps, but from the early 1630s, a few individuals started to overwinter. 68 Research on Svalbard centers on Longyearbyen and Ny-Ålesund, the most accessible areas in the high Arctic. A cooperation between the government of Norway and the Global Crop Diversity Trust, the vault is cut into rock near Longyearbyen, keeping it at a natural 6 C (21 F) and refrigerating the seeds to 18 C (0 F).

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Retrieved Maher, Harmon. Archived from the original on Retrieved "Norway Reveals Design of Doomsday' Seed Vault". 5 6 The land area is 61,022 km2 (23,561 sq mi and dominated by the island of Spitsbergen, which constitutes more than half the archipelago, followed by Nordaustlandet and Edgeøya. Kramer in The New York Times 15 September 2010. 122 All human traces dating from before 1946 are automatically protected. 113 In July 2018 a polar bear was shot sex i tønsberg tantra massasje stavanger dead after it attacked and injured a polar bear guard leading tourists off a cruise ship. "Life in the cold store". Archived from the original on 10 December 2000. Torkildsen, Torbjørn;.